The other major issue within a car electrical system is that not all components tolerate the same amount of current strength or amperage. Therefore, the system must include voltage regulators and fuses to moderate flow and protect components that cannot handle the amperage supplied by the alternator. Fuses protect circuits when placed in front of the load (component). If a voltage spike causes too much amperage sent to the headlights, a fuse designed to “blow” at 15 amps will do so, preventing the current from continuing on to cook the headlight itself.
The most common problems with electrical systems are a short or open circuit. A short circuit is what happens when a wire has rubbed through to ground causing a fuse to blow. An open circuit is what happens when a connection stops working because of a broken wire or a bad conductivity. Low battery voltage can cause strange problems to the electrical components of the car due to insufficient operating voltage. Because of the construction of wiring connectors they can sometimes create high resistance which causes heat making the connector have an open circuit. When performing wiring repairs a wiring schematic is sometimes necessary to trace wires or locate a component.
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